In our lexicon, we explain technical terms from the online world that you encounter every day – briefly, simply and comprehensibly. You haven't found the term you are looking for? Feel free to write to us at email@example.com.
An ad blocker is a software that frees you from advertisements that otherwise appear on many websites. Not everything, of course, but quite a lot.
"Ad" stands for advertisement, and "blocker" means to block. An ad blocker recognises an advertisement by the fact that it is sent by so-called ad servers. Advertisers place their ads on ad servers. If the advertisers have paid for an ad to be displayed on a certain website, then the website picks up the ad from the ad server, so to speak. The ad blocker can detect if a content comes from such an ad server.
This is also the reason why an ad blocker does not block all ads. If an ad does not come from an ad server, the ad blocker cannot recognize the content as an ad. An ad blocker is very useful, but it is not smart.
Adware is a made-up word that is composed of ad and software. Adware can be used to automatically display advertisements within a program. For example, developers use adware to make money from the programs or software they develop.
Whenever an ad is displayed, money flows from an advertiser to those who display an ad in their program or software. There are two ways to do this. Pay-per-view, where money is paid when the ad is displayed, and pay-per-click, where money flows when you click the ad.
AI (artificial intelligence) usually refers to the attempt to imitate human decision-making structures by building and programming a machine, for example a computer, in such a way that it can process problems relatively independently. However, it is also sometimes used to describe the imitation of intelligence. For example, through algorithms that simulate intelligent behaviour. This often happens in computer games, for example.
An algorithm is a kind of recipe, a sequence of instructions within a program: Do this, then do that, and if that's the same, then do that, too. When you enter a search term into Google, an algorithm decides which pages are offered to you. If the SCHUFA (German private credit bureau) calculates your creditworthiness, then this calculation method is also an algorithm. Algorithms are for data-driven companies what Coca Cola's strictly guarded recipe is. Algorithms evaluate and control our lives, more and more comprehensively, more and more inevitably and more and more intransparently. This makes it all the more important to discover and understand how they work.
An API is a set of functions, procedures, methods or classes used by computer programs to request services from the operating system or another service running locally or remotely on a server.
An API can be compared to a menu in a restaurant. Just as there are different starters, main courses, drinks or even entire menus on a menu, an API offers different functions, procedures, methods or classes from which you can choose. Once you have decided, a process starts, similar to a restaurant. Your order is taken and passed on to the kitchen, which then prepares your order in certain steps and you get the food you have ordered.
Just as there are different ways to get the food you want, there are also different types of APIs. Paid APIs, like restaurants. Open APIs that work more like a free food bank or internal APIs that are more like a company canteen that only the employees can use.
An app or application is a piece of application software. It is what the user sees and operates in order to use any services.
The BDSG is the abbreviation for the German Federal Data Protection Act. Together with the data protection laws of the federal states and other regulations, it governs the handling of personal data processed in information and communication systems or manually.
One speaks of Big Data when data is evaluated that is simply too large or too complex to be processed with conventional data processing software. This is data that exceeds the order of magnitude of terabytes and gigabytes. It is difficult for us to store such a huge amount of data with traditional applications.
The current use of the term "Big Data" usually refers to analytics to predict certain events or even behaviours. By analysing data, correlations can be found, for example, to identify business trends, prevent diseases, fight crime or even influence elections. Big data is a really powerful tool.
Bitcoin is a so-called cryptocurrency, a digital artificial currency on the Internet that works with encryption technology. The technical basis for Bitcoin is the blockchain.
Each user has a virtual wallet and its own electronic "mailbox" in the Bitcoin network on the Internet. The network only knows the address of the mailbox, but not the name of the person using it. In addition, each user of the Bitcoin network has all transaction data, which is anonymized, stored on their own computer and is thus part of the network's security. Everyone controls everyone else.
Example: User A buys goods from user B. User A sends an instruction to the Bitcoin network that contains the name of its own electronic mailbox, the name of User B's mailbox, the ID of the Bitcoins paid for (each Bitcoin has its own ID number), and the name of the product. This instruction is processed separately by each computer in the Bitcoin network. In doing so, the computer first checks the current bitcoin balance in the wallet of user A and whether the wallet of user B exists. If there are enough Bitcoins in user A's wallet and if user B's wallet exists, then the transaction is permanently noted and the transaction instruction is forwarded to the next computer in the Bitcoin network. There it is also checked and noted. Once all computers have gone through, then the transaction is considered successful and the goods can be shipped.
Each electronic mailbox in the Bitcoin network is secured with encryption. Without this encryption, users cannot access their Bitcoins. The "forgotten password" function, which is available on many services, is not offered on the Bitcoin network. Therefore, it is extremely important to keep the password safe.
The euro is printed, or coins are minted, by the European Central Bank, but where does bitcoin come from? Bitcoins were invented without a central bank. There is no single person or organisation in charge of it. Bitcoin itself is created through a process called mining. This is a complex cryptographic process in which a computer must solve a complicated mathematical problem. Once it has solved the problem, a new Bitcoin is created.
To prevent anybody with a computer from generating as many bitcoins as he or she wants, the severity of the mathematical problem is adjusted to the network, limiting the rate at which bitcoins are created.
The creation of Bitcoins requires a lot of computing power and the data centers where Bitcoins are generated require permanent cooling. That is why these centers are mainly located in northern countries because the costs are lower there due to the cooler climate.
People who do not have the computing power to generate Bitcoins can buy them in a Bitcoin marketplace in exchange for real currency such as € or $.
Even though Bitcoins can be self-produced with the appropriate computing power, the cryptocurrency is still protected from inflation because the total number of Bitcoins in the Bitcoin network is capped at 21 million. The network is self-regulating.
Blockchains are the technical basis for many cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin.
A blockchain is a database that is publicly accessible to all users, in which entries are stored forever and nothing is deleted. Only new entries are added. The trick: the blockchain data is not stored centrally, but is located entirely on the computer of each individual participant in the network (decentralized data storage). This ensures that no manipulations can be made, as all participants can control the transactions.
In the case of the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, the blockchain can be imagined in a very simplified way like a large spreadsheet in which all transactions of all users in the Bitcoin network are recorded. When the spreadsheet reaches a certain size, it is closed, sealed (using a checksum), appended to the previous spreadsheet (like links in a chain), and a new "table" is created to record the next transactions: the blockchain is finished.
To ensure security, each data block has a checksum, which ensures that the data blocks cannot be changed afterwards.
In a blockchain, other information and data can also be stored forever, such as contract documents, music and image files, etc. But in terms of storing personal data, the blockchain is unsuitable in our opinion, as it is part of the personal rights to forget or change personal data (informational self-determination).
What does a Danish king named Harald Bluetooth from around 900 have to do with your smartphone? A lot, because Bluetooth was named after him.
Bluetooth is a way of transmitting data from one device to another over short distances using wireless technology, or of establishing a permanent connection between two devices.
Example: You are sitting in your new car with integrated hands-free system and want to make a phone call. Via Bluetooth, your car's on-board computer can connect wirelessly to your smartphone. This gives you access to your address book via the on-board computer and allows you to make phone calls.
You read a good book and mark all the pages – with notes, creases, etc. – that you want to come back to later. This also works with web pages, but without creasing the pages: by leaving an electronic bookmark on the page, it is automatically saved in your browser. Every time you open your browser, the web pages are displayed as links and you can select them directly – like flipping through the highlighted pages in your book.
A browser is a computer program that helps you navigate the Internet. You are probably using Chrome, Edge, Firefox, Opera or Safari as your browser to view our website. The program displays both the Internet itself and the data it contains in such a way that the user can work with it.
"Browser Fingerprinting" is a method of identifying individual users and tracking their online activity. When you access a website, your browser transmits certain information to the website, such as browser type, device type, operating system, screen resolution, preferred language and from which website the link was followed. With the help of this information, a unique ID can then be derived in almost all cases with which the online behaviour can be tracked.
Term for an error in a computer program, in computer games, on the Internet or on websites.
According to a popularly told – but not confirmed – story, the name goes back to a computer error that supposedly occurred in 1945 when a moth flew into a computer (computers were much larger then than they are today) and disabled a relay.
A cache is a buffer memory that allows the computer to temporarily store data that is needed more often so that it can access it again more quickly and does not have to recalculate or download it again.
Example: You need certain information regularly to complete a recurring task. Instead of researching the information each time and investing time, you save it so you can quickly access it when you need it.
In a centralised system, there is a higher-level control unit that determines the actions of the participants within a system. For example, the leader of a group, who has the power of command over this group. Disadvantage: if the leader fails, the group is no longer able to act.
In this system, there is no central unit. All members of the system are autonomous and independent. If one member fails, the system is still capable of acting.
CLOUD stands for Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data
The US law allows U.S. authorities to access stored data from U.S. companies – even if the data is stored abroad.
Cloud is the term used to describe an IT infrastructure in which storage space, computing power or even user software is made available, which can then be used by many via the Internet.
Cloud computing is the use of resources in the cloud. It works in a similar way to car sharing, where several people can use the same car because it is needed at different times. People who live in different time zones or even have different working hours share the computing power from the cloud. This conserves resources and saves costs. Likewise, several people can use the same software, as it is needed at different times.
Disadvantages lie in the vulnerability of clouds and in the fact that cloud computing providers can see the user's activities in the cloud.
Cookies are similar to the nasty game in the schoolyard: as you walk by, someone sticks a little note on your back. Later, you wonder why the other students are laughing or you're getting your butt kicked. What happens from this depends on what kind of note you have stuck on your back and what is written on it.
In the digital world, cookies are given to you by websites and contain information such as what you bought and where, what language you speak, your name, email address, as well as your page settings. Cookies can also store your login information for a website so that you don't have to log in every time you go to the site (session cookies). Cookies also store your browsing habits and pass them on to the operator of the website that set the cookie.
Depending on the type of cookie, other sites can read this information and show you customized advertising, for example. This does not have to be bad per se, you should just be informed about it.
Cryptocurrencies are digital assets that people have developed as a medium of exchange. They use strong cryptography (ciphers) to secure financial transactions, verify the transfer of assets, and control the creation of additional units.
Compared to centralized digital currency and central banking systems, cryptocurrencies use decentralized control. This works by means of distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, which serves as a public financial transaction database.
Dark data is data that companies collect and store but do not use. Often, more and more of this unused data accumulates and as a result, companies are often no longer even aware that this data exists.
The darknet is an anonymous, hidden part of the Internet that can only be accessed with special browsers (e.g. Tor), special anonymization measures and personal contacts with other users. Search engines do not work here because the Internet addresses of the content change regularly. Communication takes place via countless, encrypted, so-called peer-to-peer networks. This means that there are always two parties communicating directly with each other. Content is only available when the person providing it is online.
The darknet itself is not illegal. However, due to its anonymity, many criminals move around there and the chances of catching viruses or Trojans are extremely high.
A database is an electronic system used to manage data.
Data brokers are companies that collect data online and off the Internet or buy it from other companies.
Data brokers are not new players. More or less unnoticed, they have been around for a very long time. In the past, they were called address brokers, because the main business purpose was to "type" address data, e.g. from the Yellow Pages or telephone directories, and sell it to advertisers. Today, it's a digital business: buying and selling user data. This is not illegal as long as the owners of the data have consented to it.
Few know about the industry, which keeps a very low profile and turns over hundreds of billions of euros a year.
A company's data capital includes all the data that the company owns, such as customer data, employee and supplier data, transaction data, and so on. The more data the company has and the more detailed it is, the more it is worth and the higher the data capital.
Area where computer systems and their associated components are housed. The area may be within multiple buildings, a building, or in a designated space within a building.
Example: A mechanical engineering company commissions an external company (UN 1) with payroll accounting. The mechanical engineering company passes on information regarding the amount of wages, working hours, vacation, etc. to UN 1. UN 1 also provides the IT system and stores the employees' data. The engineering company is the data controller, UN 1 is the data processor.
The data economy is a global digital ecosystem in which data is collected and exchanged to make money. The data is stored and secured.
For example, search engines, social media, payment and online providers, and numerous other companies operating on the Internet act as data collectors.
A data economy can be centralized (data is stored on central servers and a few companies have power over all data) or decentralized (data is stored on many individual devices and many have power over parts of the data). polypoly develops the technology for a decentralized data economy: the polyPod.
The idea here is to obfuscate existing confidential data in such a way that it is no longer possible to draw conclusions about the original data.
The main reason for data masking is to protect personal data when data is shared with third parties. Example: An insurance company wants to have the data of its customers statistically analyzed. Before the data records are handed over for evaluation, a certain part of the data (name, street, etc.) is falsified or anonymized so that no conclusions can be drawn about the insured persons.
Large data sets are examined using very powerful computers and statistical methods to identify new cross-links and trends.
The ability to move data from one place to another.
Data, even in huge quantities, is very mobile. Smuggling a few million letters from one country to another would be difficult, just imagine all the bags, sacks or baskets it would take, very exhausting. A few million e-mails, on the other hand, are no problem, as they can easily be stored on a small data carrier or sent directly electronically.
The consequence of Data Mobility: a certain type of data analysis is illegal in a country? No problem, just place the server that does the analysis in a country where the analysis is legal and send the data there. With the huge amounts of data that are moved every day, this is quite easy to disguise.
A company that collects data from users, stores it centrally and does not give users any control over the use of their data has a data monopoly. It has sole power over the collected data.
A data owner is a senior employee within an organization who is responsible for the quality of one or more data sets. This means they ensure that definitions and actions are in place to address data quality issues, and a data quality report is generated.
The right to data portability is one of eight rights enforced by the GDPR.
As a data subject it allows you to obtain data that a data controller holds on you for your own purposes. You may use it yourself or transmit it to another data controller. The GDPR requires that the data is "in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format".
Example: A mechanical engineering company commissions an external company (UN 1) with payroll accounting. The engineering company passes on information regarding the amount of wages, working hours, vacation, etc. to UN 1. UN 1 also provides the IT system and stores the employees' data. The engineering company is the data controller, UN 1 is the data processor.
Data protection officers are independent and ensure that all personal data protection laws are observed and applied within an organization. Articles 37-39 of the European Union General Data Protection Regulation explain the designation, position and tasks of data protection officers within an organization.
Data protection: does not deal with the content of data, but with the right to control one's data.
Data security: generally refers to the protection of data, regardless of the type of data involved.
A data silo refers to information and data stocks that are stored in special locations and to which only certain people have access.
Data monopolists like Facebook and Co. all have their own data silos, i.e. large databases stored on servers with their users' data.
Assists Data Owners with their tasks.
A data subject is a natural person that can be identified using available data markers, such as by name, social security number, or other unique identifier.
Declarative comes from Latin and means something like "explanatory". Declarative Programming literally means: explanatory programming.
With Declarative Programming it is specified by the programmer, which goals are to be reached with the program, not how it must be implemented (inserted). That stands in contrast to imperative programs, with which the kind of the implementation is specified by the programmer.
It can mean just about any technical device, from smartphones and laptops to sensors or a high-performance computer in a data center.
Digital Fingerprinting has nothing to do with the fingerprints taken from suspects in detective stories. With the help of digital fingerprinting, data such as pieces of music, photos or films are provided with an individual – invisible to the human eye – means of identification, a digital "fingerprint". The purpose behind this is the traceability of copyright infringements.
Outside the Internet, a person can identify him or herself uniquely by means of fingerprints or an ID card. On the Internet, on the other hand, a person is uniquely identified by means of digital identity. This works, for example, by logging in using a password in combination with an e-mail address or by means of a digital signature for important document.
Digital innovation is the application of software technologies with the aim of solving problems in the business world.
Distributed ledger technology is used for the documentation of transactions. The special feature here is that the documentation is not done centrally in one place (=in a single cash book), but in many different places (decentralized), in any number of cash books, by different parties. Transactions are recorded in all cash books and all parties come to a consensus regarding the current status of the cash books. This is made possible by networked computers.
There are different distributed ledger techniques. The difference is in how the networked computers come to an agreement regarding the status of the cash books (consensus protocols).
Distributed ledger techniques can also be divided into public networks (anyone can participate and view the data) and private networks (participation and access are limited)
A blockchain is a specific type of distributed ledger.
A domain is the address of a website. This address is unique and exists exactly once in the world.
A domain consists of different parts. The ending, such as ".de" for many German sites, is called the top-level domain.
The top-level domains are administered by institutions, which also make specifications about the appearance of a domain (e.g. max. character set etc.). DENIC eG. is responsible for domains ending in ".de".
With end-to-end encryption (E2E), messages are encrypted by the sender before they are sent and are not decrypted again until they reach the recipient. This ensures that only the sender and the recipient know what is in the message.
In the digital world, the word "feature" refers to an additional function that improves or makes special a smartphone or a car, for example.
A firewall can be thought of as the security precautions on a high-security military site. There is a wall, various technical precautions that prevent intrusion over the wall, and meticulous checks on vehicles entering and leaving the site, as well as on the people inside. No one gets in or out without permission from the security guards at the main gate.
The firewall is connected between the Internet and your own computer. It checks access rights of other programs and computers (like the security guards at the main gate of the military site for entering vehicles) to the protected computer and regulates which programs of the computer are allowed to access the Internet (like the security guards at the exit from the site).
A firewall can also be installed between networks or local computers.
Five Eyes is the name of a coalition of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the USA. The purpose of the coalition, the details of which were set out in the UKUSA agreement in 1946, is to collect, store and exchange data.
Fives Eyes operates worldwide and has divided among itself the observation of the various countries of the world. There is reportedly no spying on each other.
Many countries would like to join the federation - so far unsuccessfully. Nevertheless, the intelligence services of many countries – including the BND (German Federal Intelligence Service) – cooperate with Five Eyes.
Flooding is a routing algorithm used in computer networks. Short digression: Routing is the process of determining optimal paths to send messages. An algorithm is a sequence of instructions within a program. A routing algorithm thus gives precise instructions on how and via which paths messages are to be sent.
In the case of flooding, as the name suggests, the network is virtually flooded with a data packet. Each data node (interface of data lines) forwards the data packet to all data lines to which it is connected. In this way, the data packet reaches the entire network.
There are two types of flooding, controlled and uncontrolled flooding. In uncontrolled flooding, no mechanisms are built in to prevent the same data from being sent through the network over and over again. In the case of controlled flooding, appropriate mechanisms are built in.
FTP is the abbreviation for "File Transfer Protocol". FTP is a method to transfer files from one computer to another.
GDPR is the abbreviation for the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation. This regulation governs how personal data may be processed by companies and which requirements must be met.
The term geotagging is composed of the words "geo" (Greek for earth) and "tagging".
Geotagging is the process of storing geographic information in a file invisible to the human eye. Example: You are on vacation in the Seychelles and take various photos. To geotag the photos, you could store the latitude and longitude lines of your current position, as well as elevations and bearings, place names, times, etc. in these photos. This information can be read by others who want to know when and where the photos were taken. Special image search engines can also be used to find places that are close to where you took the photos.
Geotagging can prove to be extremely helpful in solving criminal cases and finding missing people. However, it also allows spying on personal data.
The term geotargeting is made up of the words "geo" (Greek for earth) and "targeting".
Geotargeting involves determining the location of Internet users by means of IP addresses or GPS data. This information can be used for advertising, for example.
Example: You live in Berlin, where your computer is located. If you access the Internet via your computer, one can see from your IP address that you live in Berlin. A company that wants to send advertising for an event specifically to people who live in Berlin can use geotargeting to specify that only people who are in Berlin should receive this advertising.
Hacking is the (very often) unauthorized intrusion into computer networks, or the unauthorized takeover of these networks.
Originally, the term "hacker" simply referred to a person who is a skilled computer technology enthusiast or programmer.
Hashing is the use of so-called hash functions to encode data into a small value of fixed size. In simple terms, it can be thought of as a unique checksum for given data.
Hashes are often used in the context of encryption.
A hashtag is a type of tagging that makes it easier to find news and content in social media. A hashtag consists of two parts, the # sign, which identifies the hashtag as such, and text. In the case of polypoly, for example, a hashtag would look like this: #polypoly.
A Host in the sense of a "Network Host" is a computer connected to a computer network. Each host in the network must have a unique IP address.
HTML is the abbreviation for "Hypertext Markup Language".
HTML is used to write and structure web pages. Browsers, such as Firefox, Chrome and others read the HTML files and then display the web page graphically for us.
HTML-based content management systems, such as Typo3 and WordPress provide a graphical interface for the user to build web pages.
HTTP stands for "Hypertext Transfer Protocol". Web browser use this protocol to request Web pages and their contents from Web sites.
Incognito mode is often referred to as private mode. Certain settings in the browser ensure deletion of search histories, cookies and other data entered on websites as soon as the browser is closed. This way, other people using the same computer can no longer see what the person has previously searched on the Internet and what pages he or she has been on.
Attention: surfing in incognito mode does not make you anonymous on the Internet. Browser information, IP address, etc. are visible.
The Internet of Things is a term for all technical devices on earth that have an on/off switch and can connect to the Internet to communicate. Starting with computers and smartphones, to cars and Internet-enabled toasters, all the way to refrigerators, fitness trackers and other devices.
IP is the abbreviation for Internet Protocol.
Every device that is located within a network is assigned a unique IP address, with the help of which the device can be directly addressed and reached.
All devices that connect to the Internet are also assigned an IP address by the provider so that the device can be contacted and identified. This IP address is constantly changed.
In a computer network there are network interface controllers. These control and monitor a particular interface on said network. To allow these controllers to communicate within a particular part of the network, each controller has a unique identifier that acts as a network address. This identifier is the MAC address.
MAC addresses are predominantly assigned by device manufacturers (usually written on a label on the back of the device) and are also often referred to as a burned-in or physical address.
In machine learning, an artificial system learns from examples, recognizes patterns and regularities – gathers experience, so to speak – and can then apply this accumulated experience to other, new situations.
The fields of application are extremely diverse. To name just a few: Speech and text recognition, automated diagnostic procedures, and credit card fraud detection.
Malware is any type of software designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network. There are many different types of malware, including, for example, computer viruses, Trojans, and spyware.
The term is composed of the Greek "meta" and the word "data". Meta here means something like "on a higher level".
Metadata is information about characteristics of other data that is stored invisibly to the human eye. Example: You take vacation photos and store digital information in the photos about the longitude and latitude of the place where the photo was taken (geotagging). This data is metadata that makes it easier to find photos, as well as videos and other information, by using specialized search engines.
However, metadata is also viewed with concern by data protection specialists because it can be used to extract a lot of personal information.
The term meta search engine is composed of the Greek word "meta" and the word "search engine". Meta means something like "on a higher level".
Meta search engines do not have their own directories in which they search, but they forward their search simultaneously to several other search engines, collect their results and prepare them accordingly for the searcher.
The advantage of a meta search engine is that a search query only has to be entered once in order to query a large number of search engines.
NFC stands for the term "Near Field Communication".
This international transmission standard, which is based on a technology for transmitter-receiver systems (RFID technology), allows data to be transmitted over short distances.
Object-oriented programming is a style of programming where everything that is programmed is described by objects.
Example: In a game, a car is supposed to drive by. The car is an object. This object is in turn assigned certain properties (such as. color, number of tires, number of doors, etc.). And: the object has functions. In our case e.g. driving.
One of the object-oriented programming languages is e.g. Java.
Open source software is computer software whose source code can be viewed, modified and extended by anyone.
The idea behind open source is a pooling of skills and resources to develop, test or improve software via public collaboration.
The abbreviation for "peer to peer" is P2P.
In P2P networks, data is exchanged between "peers" - computer systems that are connected to each other via the Internet. A central server is not required for this.
Personal data are details and information that relate to a natural person (as opposed to a legal entity, e.g. a company). This can be, for example, personal data (age, address, date of birth, etc.), identification numbers, or bank data and physical characteristics (gender, eye color, height, etc.).
Personal data is protected by the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation).
There is data that can cause a particularly great deal of damage in the wrong hands, such as genetic and biometric data or health data. For this reason, these data must be given very special protection. Particularly strict rules apply to the collection and processing of this data.
Phishing is the term used to describe all methods that are aimed at "fishing" for users' access data. This can happen, for example, by means of fake websites, e-mails or short messages in which the user is led to believe that they come from a trustworthy sender.
A classic example is an e-mail informing recipients about an alleged problem with their own user account, which makes it absolutely necessary to log in to their own user account via a link in said e-mail. By entering one's own user data, this information is directly transmitted to unauthorized third parties and used for illegal activities.
In the IT world, plug-in is used as a term for the part of a software that can be added to an existing software on demand in order to change or extend it. In this way, for example, many helpful functions can be added to image processing programs, such as additional effects for changing patterns and colors.
A polypoly is a market form in which many market participants (consumer and suppliers) exist. None of the participants has market power and competition creates a healthy equilibrium.
The opposite of a polypoly is a monopoly. In a monopoly, there is only one supplier who has sole market power. He can determine the prices and enforce his interests on the demanders, because there is no alternative for them.
The term "product owner" is another word for a project manager. The term has its origin in the Scrum method, a method for managing Projects that is used for both project and software development.
In IT, the term "profiling" covers the creation of user profiles by evaluating a vast amount of data.
With the help of algorithms and special evaluation processes, patterns and correlations are identified that can be used elsewhere, e.g., for the optimization of advertising measures.
Internet or also mobile communications providers are companies that provide their customers with a connection for telephone, Internet or mobile communications and offer the services and equipment required for this purpose.
The word pseudonymized is derived from the ancient Greek adjective "pseudonym" and means "falsely so called". Anonymous also comes from ancient Greek and means "without a name". Both anonymization and pseudonymization serve data protection purposes.
Anonymization: personal data is changed to such an extent that the data can no longer be assigned to specific individuals. This process can no longer be reversed.
Pseudonymization: personal characteristics in a data record that provide information about a specific person are replaced by a pseudonym – usually a sequence of numbers and letters. Using a special key, the pseudonymized data can be made visible again and the reference to specific persons can be re-established.
Retargeting is a term from online marketing. Visitors who visit a website are electronically tagged and then targeted again with targeted advertising when they browse other websites.
Example: You are thinking about buying a bicycle and surf a website for bicycles. You are electronically tagged there and from now on you will receive advertising about bicycles again and again when you surf other websites.
A router is a device that can be used to forward or distribute data to other devices and provide access to the Internet.
Each programming language has a SDK. An SDK is a collection of program libraries and programming tools that are used to develop software.
A "server" is a computer program or host that waits for a customer (client) to contact it and for it to perform a service for the client.
Sniffer software are network analysis programs designed to help detect vulnerabilities and errors in the network.
SaaS describes a widespread business model in which a company makes software available to its customers via the Internet, or a cloud, on an as-needed basis. The software is used directly in the browser or via the software client and customers can buy exactly the software they really need.
The term "spyware" is a made-up word composed of the words "spy" and "ware" (software), i.e. software that is intended to be used to spy on others.
The abbreviation SSL stands for "Secure Sockets Layer". However, this designation is now obsolete and has been replaced by "Transport Layer Security" (TLS).
This is an encryption protocol that can be used to transfer data between two computer systems such as a Web browser and Web site.
Tags are used to mark electronic posts, such as posts on social media.
The most common tag is probably the hashtag. It is used to mark posts to make them easier to find. "Tags" are also used, however, to address specific users in a post. For this purpose, the @ sign is used in conjunction with the user name.
Tokens occur in the context of cryptocurrencies, however, they are not a cryptocurrency because they lack certain characteristics.
Tokens represent a specific asset or asset that has been pre-determined. This can be anything that can be traded, from commodities to real estate and loyalty points.
Wondering what anonymity on the Internet has to do with onions? In the case of the "Tor" software, a lot, because Tor stands for "The Onion Router". The name was chosen because the structure of the program (different layers of encryption) is very similar to that of an onion.
Tor allows the user to move around the Internet as anonymously as possible and is therefore also used as a browser for surfing the darknet.
Do you know the legend of the Trojan horse? Greek soldiers hid in the belly of a wooden horse and placed it outside the walls of Troy, which they had been trying unsuccessfully to conquer for days. The Trojans were so curious about the horse that they took it behind their city walls. During the night, the Greek soldiers got out of the horse, opened the gates of Troy and conquered it.
Software that outwardly pretends to be harmless and legitimate, but then secretly tries to gain access to the system or cause damage is called a Trojan horse in the IT world – short form: Trojan – in reference to the Greek myth.
Trojans belong to the malware group.
In two-factor authentication, or 2FA for short, a user's identity is verified by combining two different, independent components (factors). A classic example is the combination of bank card and PIN at an ATM.
URL is the abbreviation for "Uniform Resource Locator" and the IT term for an Internet address.
A user interface is the way a user communicates with a machine.
For example, on your computer you have an operating system – most likely from Microsoft or Apple. Both operating systems work with icons that you click on to launch programs or perform other tasks. The sum of all icons, the way they are displayed, etc. are part of the user interface.
The abbreviation UX stands for the English term "user experience". This refers to the entirety of the experience that a user has with digital devices, such as tablets, smartphones, etc.
A virtual machine is a computer file that creates the image of a computer within another computer. By clicking on a window, it can be opened and operated in the same way as a computer.
The purpose of a virtual machine is to see in advance how certain modifications would affect the functioning of the computer without risk of damaging the actual computer.
The term "virtual private network" (VPN) refers to a connection between networks that is not visible to others.
VPN is used, for example, to connect employees who work from home to their company's network. They then have the same access from home as if they were in the company.
Web crawlers are computer programs that independently and automatically search the Internet (world wide web) and evaluate websites. They collect information and are also used by search engines, for example, to add websites to their index.
A whistleblower is a person who makes secret or protected information public.
The term "widget" is a made-up word that is probably composed of the words "window" and "gadget".
A widget is the control element of a graphical user interface. Example: You can display a small window on your user interface that keeps you informed about the weather. It shows you at a glance the current temperature, as well as whether it is raining or the sun is shining.
A "wiki" is a website that can be read and edited by users. The common goal is usually the collection of knowledge and experience, as well as the documentation of the same.
An example of a "wiki" on the Internet is the free encyclopedia Wikipedia.
WORM is the abbreviation for "write once read many".
With WORM, measures are designated, which make it impossible to change, to delete or to overwrite data on a certain storage medium. Data is stored for so long on the storage medium, one after the other, until the storage medium has no more storage capacity.